GitHub最常用的Git命令总结

gitgit
最后编辑于 2019年08月09日 开发

GitHub为用户提供了桌面版Git客户端,即可以运行命令行又有图形用户界面。Windows或Mac用户可以从这里下载安装:
https://desktop.github.com/


Image from: github.com

安装完毕之后,就可以进行自己从Git操作了。下面是GitHub最常用的Git命令总结:

SETUP

Configuring user information used across all local repositories
配置适用于所有本地存储库的用户信息
git config --global user.name "[firstname lastname]"
set a name that is identifiable for credit when review version history
git config --global user.email "[valid-email]"
set an email address that will be associated with each history marker
git config --global color.ui auto
set automatic command line coloring for Git for easy reviewing

SETUP & INIT

Configuring user information, initializing and cloning repositories
配置用户信息,初始化和克隆存储库
git init
initialize an existing directory as a Git repository
git clone [url]
retrieve an entire repository from a hosted location via URL

STAGE & SNAPSHOT

Working with snapshots and the Git staging area
快照和Git暂存区
git status
show modified files in working directory, staged for your next commit
git add [file]
add a file as it looks now to your next commit (stage)
git reset [file]
unstage a file while retaining the changes in working directory
git diff
diff of what is changed but not staged
git diff --staged
diff of what is staged but not yet commited
git commit -m "[descriptive message]"
commit your staged content as a new commit snapshot

BRANCH & MERGE

Isolating work in branches, changing context, and integrating changes
分支和合并。分支隔离、改变上下文和集成修改
git branch
list your branches. a * will appear next to the currently active branch
git branch [branch-name]
create a new branch at the current commit
git checkout
switch to another branch and check it out into your working directory
git merge [branch]
merge the specified branch’s history into the current one
git log
show all commits in the current branch’s history

INSPECT & COMPARE

Examining logs, diffs and object information
检查和比较。检查日志、版本差异和对象信息
git log
show the commit history for the currently active branch
git log branchB..branchA
show the commits on branchA that are not on branchB
git log --follow [file]
show the commits that changed file, even across renames
git diff branchB...branchA
show the diff of what is in branchA that is not in branchB
git show [SHA]
show any object in Git in human-readable format

TRACKING PATH CHANGES

Versioning file removes and path changes
跟踪路径修改。版本文件修改和路径修改
git rm [file]
delete the file from project and stage the removal for commit
git mv [existing-path] [new-path]
change an existing file path and stage the move
git log --stat -M
show all commit logs with indication of any paths that moved

IGNORING PATTERNS

Preventing unintentional staging or commiting of files
忽略不需要提交的文件。以防止无意的暂存或文件提交
logs/
*.notes
pattern*/
Save a file with desired paterns as .gitignore with either direct string
matches or wildcard globs.
git config --global core.excludesfile [file]
system wide ignore patern for all local repositories

SHARE & UPDATE

Retrieving updates from another repository and updating local repos
从另一个存储库获取更新并更新本地存储库
git remote add [alias] [url]
add a git URL as an alias
git fetch [alias]
fetch down all the branches from that Git remote
git merge [alias]/[branch]
merge a remote branch into your current branch to bring it up to date
git push [alias] [branch]
Transmit local branch commits to the remote repository branch
git pull
fetch and merge any commits from the tracking remote branch

REWRITE HISTORY

Rewriting branches, updating commits and clearing history
重写分支、更新提交和清除历史
git rebase [branch]
apply any commits of current branch ahead of specified one
git reset --hard [commit]
clear staging area, rewrite working tree from specified commit

TEMPORARY COMMITS

Temporarily store modified, tracked files in order to change branches
保存临时修改的文件
git stash
Save modified and staged changes
git stash list
list stack-order of stashed file changes
git stash pop
write working from top of stash stack
git stash drop
discard the changes from top of stash stack

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